The African element in Japan is clearly recognisable by certain inhabitants with dark and often blackish skin, wide flat nose and frizzy to curly hair. African racial type skulls have been found in the island of Formosa and traces of this African element in the island of Liu-Kiu to the south of Japan, Les-Negritos Dela Chine. Batchelor points out, in his book Ainu Lite and Core, that 'the oldest known inhabitants of Japan are the 'Ainus'. The Ainu people of Japan is
notable for possessing almost exclusively Haplogroup D chromosomes In human genetics, Haplogroup D (M174) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup D are believed to have originated in Africa some 50,000 years before present. Along with haplogroup E, D contains the distinctive YAP polymorphism, which indicates their common ancestry. Both D and E also contain the M168 change, which is present in all Y-chromosome haplogroups except A and B. Like haplogroup C, D is believed to represent a great coastal migration along southern Asia, from Arabia to Southeast Asia and thence northward to populate East Asia. It is found today at high frequency among populations in Tibet, the Japanese archipelago, and the Andaman Islands, though curiously not in India.
The Ainu of Japan and the Jarawa and Onge of the Andaman Islands are notable for possessing almost exclusively Haplogroup D chromosomes, although Haplogroup C chromosomes also occur among the Ainu at a frequency of approximately 10%, similar to the Japanese. Haplogroup D chromosomes are also found at low to moderate frequencies among all the populations of Central and Northeast Asia as well as the Han and Miao-Yao peoples of China and among several minority populations of Yunnan that speak Tibeto-Burman languages and reside in close proximity to the Tibetans.
Negro/African/Oceanic skeletons (referred to as Loponoid by the Polish school) have been found in ancient
China see: Kwang-chih Chang The Archaeology of ancient China (1976,1977, p.76,1987, pp.64,68). These Blacks were spread throughout Guangxi, Guangdong, Sichuan, Yunnan and Pearl River delta. Skeletons from Liu-Chiang and Dawenkou, early Neolithic sites found in China, were
The Chauvet-Pont-d'Arc Cave in the Ardeche department of southern France is a cave that contains some of the earliest known cave paintings, as well as other evidence of Upper Paleolithic life. It is located near the commune of Vallon-Pont-d'Arc on a limestone cliff above the former bed of the Ardeche River, in the Gorges de l'Ardeche. Discovered on December 18, 1994, it is considered one of the most significant prehistoric art sites.
The dates have been a matter of dispute but a study published in 2012 supports placing the art in the Aurignacian period, approximately 30,000–32,000 BP. Based on radiocarbon dating, the cave appears to have been used by humans during two distinct periods: the Aurignacian and the Gravettian. Most of the artwork dates to the earlier, Aurignacian, era (30,000 to 32,000 years ago). The later Gravettian occupation, which occurred 25,000 to 27,000 years ago, left little but a child's footprints and other trivial things.
The Cosquer cave is an underwater cave, it is located in the Calanque de Morgiou in Marseille, France, not very far from Cap Morgiou. The entrance to the cave is located 37 m (121 ft) underwater, due to the rise of the Mediterranean in Paleolithic times.
It was discovered by diver Henri Cosquer in 1985, but its contents were not made public until 1991, when three divers became lost in the cave and died. Four-fifths of the cave, including any art on its walls, was submerged and obliterated by the rising sea.
150 instances of cave art remain including several dozen painting and carvings dating back to the Upper Paleolithic, corresponding to two different phases of occupation of the cave: Older drawings consisting of 65 hand stencils and other related motifs, dating to 27,000 years BP (the Gravettian Era).
Newer drawings of signs and 177 animal drawings dating to 19,000 years BP (the Solutrean Era), representing both "classical" animals such as bison, ibex, and horses, but also marine animals such as seals and what appear to be auks and jellyfish.
Altamira is a cave in Spain famous for its Upper Paleolithic cave paintings featuring drawings and polychrome rock paintings of wild mammals and human hands. Its special relevance comes from the fact that it was the first cave in which prehistoric cave paintings had been discovered. When the discovery was first made public in 1880, it led to a bitter public controversy between experts which continued into the early 20th century, as many of them did not believe prehistoric man had the intellectual capacity to produce any kind of artistic expression. The acknowledgement of the authenticity of the paintings, which finally came in 1902, changed forever the perception of prehistoric human beings. It is located near the town of Santillana del Mar in Cantabria, Spain, 30 km west of the city of Santander.
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Archaeological excavations in the cave floor found rich deposits of artifacts from the Upper Solutrean (c. 18,500 years ago) and Lower Magdalenean (between c. 16,500 and 14,000 years ago).
Both periods belong to the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
In the millennia between these two occupations, the cave was evidently inhabited only by wild animals.
Lascaux is a complex of caves in southwestern France famous for its Paleolithic cave paintings.
The original caves are located near the village of Montignac, in the department of Dordogne.
They contain some of the best-known Upper Paleolithic art.
These paintings are estimated to be 17,300 years old.
They primarily consist of images of large animals, most of which are known from fossil evidence to have lived in the area at the time.
Don Marcelino was later to explore chamber after chamber of extraordinary drawings:
polychrome horses in flight, painted prints of human hands, outlines of human hands.
Here again was extraordinary evidence of the humanness and artistic skills of these Paleolithic Grimaldi artists.
Don Marcelino hired a French painter to make sketches of the artwork so that he could publish them.
This well-written paper, An Account of Certain Prehistoric Discoveries in the Province of Santander (1880), included the paintings and a detailed description of the archeology of the cave.