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Above: Orunmila, Nri, or Thoth Regalia
To learn more about Yoruba culture click here
Above: Goddess Isis
Archaeologists of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, in their excavations carried out in the early 1970s discovered huge stacks of various kinds of stone tools – hand axes, knives, picks, cleavers - in the Igbo town of Ugwu-Ele (‘Hill of Ele’), Isuikwuato, Abia State, Nigeria. The archaeologists concluded that the tools spanned the period from Early, Middle to Late Stone Age (at least 500,000 – 80,000 B.C. The British member of UNN Archaeology department at the time, Professor D. David concluded that, “the site was the largest stone axe factory in the world! Top right: Oshuru's Disk in Oshuru's shrine, made from iron slags, Lejja, Nsukka, Eastern Nigeria. Bottom left: Enugu Step Pyramids Eastern Nigeria. Bottom right: Igbo Chi Shrine.
We are not aware of any other site in the world with such an enormous amount of stone axes and other tools.” Anozie argued that since “the technology and typology of Acheulian culture is very similar everywhere in Africa and other parts of the world, (and) the hand-axes from Ugwuele very much resemble those from (Stone Age sites in) France, England, India, East Africa, North Africa, etc., in terms of form and techniques of manufacture. It is mainly because of this that the Acheulian culture is regarded as a worldwide culture and a heritage of all humanity”. The ‘Out of East Africa’ phenomenon, as the world has been made to believe, was based on the discovery of a three million year old ancestor of Homo-erectus (Lucy) in East Africa.
In 2002 a joint French and Chadian team of palaeontologists led by Professor Michel Brunet of the University of Poitiers, found a seven million year old ancestor of Homo-erectus in the southern Chad region, close to the Nigerian border.
This means that Igbo Homo Erectus was a direct descendant of the seven million year old Proto-Hominid of what would have been a Niger, Chad and Nigerian migration. Simply put, Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Cameroon, the Congo in general and Gabon as the cradle of humankind, culture, language, metal technology, astronomy and civilization.
Atum is Ele - the Manu of the Igbo Cavemen of Ugwuele (500,000 B.C.)
According to Professor Achonolu "Ele Biblical El, El-Elyon - the ‘God of the Heights’ whom Melchizedek represented in the Old Testament - is the God/Manu/Group Soul of the cavemen of the wilds (Homo Erectus). This is consistent with our thesis propounded in all our previous publications on this and related subjects. This God, also called Sokar lives in a Tomb in the lowest rung of the Duat called Restau. Sitchen further reveals that “in Olden Times, El was the Principal deity of Heaven and Earth. He lived in semi-retirement (Hidden), aloof from daily affairs. His abode was in the mountains (Lejja Hills) at the two headwaters (Niger and Benue)”, El is the ruler of the affairs of the gods, Judge of the Dead and author of Destiny".
“El/Ele began his entry into human affairs as the Group-Soul of the first ape-men/cavemen. As the First Human to rise from the Deep Waters of Nun, he was the Group-Soul of the First Hominids - the cavemen of the wilds, otherwise called Homo-erectus”. Yoruba people also have their own narrative about these myths, albeit slightly different.
The Grave as a Pyramid Representing the Womb of the Earth Mother: Pharaoh Dan/ Du Dunu was said to have called his grandfather, Gani Eri/King Eri, by the title “Shukunni, the Great Ukush, the Gut/God”. This obviously translates into Igbo as, “Chukwuani, Chukwuini or Chukwunna – God of the Earth/God in the Tomb/God the Father, Great Aka Ushi”! Aka Ushi implies this Immortal God is dwelling in the circular Womb of the Mother. It is also a collective term for all Ape-men. Above left: Igbo Alusi Gods
Bottom left: Igbo Nsibidi Script. Bottom right: Hausa Tribe Groundnut Pyramids.
Aka Ushi are nurtured in the pyramidal womb of the Earth Goddess, which the Igbo call Akwu, ‘Nest’ (Egyptian Akh/Akhet is a term for the pyramid) - the Igbo concept of the Earth-Mother as the Womb that incubates the embryo and harbours the dead. Ancient Igbos were buried in huge step-pyramids the size of single storied buildings. The Nsude pyramids. Osiris wears traditional Igbo double plumes with his Igbo conical hat and carries the Igbo flail (fly whisk) and metal staff – all part and parcel of the traditional Igbo regalia of kings and Nze na ozo initiates.
This was an excellent research and I would love to give it 9 out of 10, but it is too Igbo-centric. So, I will give it 6 0ut of 10.
It failed to mention the contributions of other African tribes including their neighbours namely the Yoruba and Hausa tribes. It omitted the facts that people in ancient Zambia were using body paints as early as 400,000 B.C.E., including the artefacts found in Lope, Gabon, pushing early human civilizations as far back as 400,000 B.C.E., and the effect of emigration, immigration and integration. Since the Igbo tribes did not evolve independently of the other African tribes from the vacuum of time and space.
It deducted all the artefacts found in relation to ancient artist studio from Blombos Cave, Adams calendar and the red ochre stone all found in South Africa.
These artefacts are 100,000, 77,000 and 70,000 years old respectively. Including the oldest mine in the world in Swaziland which is over 60,000 years old. It forgot The confederation of the people of the Mediterranean countries who were known as "The Sea People". Among this group called "The Sea People" were the following.
The Peleset and Tjeker (Minoans) of Crete, they would later be known as the "Philistines" after they had settled in Southern Canaan. Over time, this area became known by a form of their name "Palestine". The Lukka who may have come from the Lycian region of Anatolia, The Ekwesh and Denen seem to be identified with the original (Black) Greeks, The Shardana (Sherden) who may be associated with Sardinia, The Teresh (Tursha or Tyrshenoi), the Tyrrhenians - the Greek name for the Etruscans, and The Shekelesh (Sicilians?).
It ignore the the Yoruba Creation Myth of Ifá, which states that “Obatala called (Eshin in Igboland), climbs down the chain from Heaven to Earth.” The chain is symbolic of the double helix which is the form found within genes used to store DNA (Also known as Hermes Staff, the Staff of Tehuti or the Caduceus). As well as the recent discovery of man made tools which was about 3.3milion years old, in Turkana, Kenya. Top left: Igbo Intricate Bronze Ceremonial Pot. Right: Igbo Artwork in gold.
It overlooked the uncovering of the Dufuna Boat. Since the Dufuna canoe was discovered by a local Fulani herdsman in 1987 archaeologists have been in a frenzy about the discovery.
The canoe which was excavated by a combined team of Nigerian and German archeologists in 1994 at Dufuna, has continued to amaze them, for the simple reason that it has changed the course of history. Dufuna is a village along the Komodugu Gana river in Fune local government area of Yobe State, Nigeria.
The boat was dug out from a depth of five meters beneath the earth's surface and measured 8.4 meters in length, 0.5 meters wide and about 5 cm thick varying at certain parts of the surface. The age of the boat has been put at about 8000 years old (6000 B.C.E.), thus, becoming the oldest boat in Africa and third oldest on earth. It predates the Egyptian Solar Boat by over 2000 years. The canoe belongs to the Late Stone Age period (Neolithic Age), when humans ceased to roam the face of the earth hunting to become herdsmen and cultivators and in the process becoming modifiers of their environment, with complex social structures, in response to new problems and ways of dealing with situations. Above left: Dufuna Boat, Dufuna, Northern Nigeria.
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"The discovery of this boat is an important landmark in the history of Nigeria in particular and Africa in general" said the late Dr. Omotoso Eluyemi then the Director of the National Commission for for Museums and Monuments. Above: Igbo Goddess Anyanwu
Besides proving that the Nigerian society was at par (if not earlier) than that of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Phoenicia, the discovery also provides early concrete evidence that Africans have been exploring technology to modify their environment and suit their needs. Above:
Igbo Alusi God
But more importantly, "the canoe has shown that people in the Niger area had a history of advanced technology and that they had mastered the three major items of neolithic culture which included the fashioning, standardization and utilization of tools according to set traditions.
"It gives concrete evidence of transportation by seas as well as providing evidence of some form of long distance commercial activities indicative of existing political and economic structures."
Above: Ifa Divination Chain
Historians categorized the writing schemes from Africa into the following groups:
Syllographic Systems, Alphabetic Systems, Pictographic Systems, Petrographic Systems, Chromatographic Systems, Philosophical Systems.... so there were many different types of scripts Nsibidi is a writing system of the Ejagham people of Nigeria.
It is seen on tombstones, secret society buildings, costumes, ritual fans, headdresses, textiles, and in gestures, body and ground painting.
To learn more about Yoruba culture click here