In the Americas, we are now learning that the history of the Americas is much older, and much more complicated than was once thought new evidences of early human habitation are constantly being found, a few sites have produced dates of human habitation as early as 50,000 years ago and more. Ancient America
Sites such as Pedra Furada - Brazil, Monte Verde - Chile, and Fells cave in Tierra del Fuego - Chile, are enabling us to paint a new and more complete picture, of the early history of the Western Hemisphere. From Unknown-maybe 50,000 to 20,000 B.C. Australoids (people from Australia) were coming in. These Australians (commonly called aborigines), have been in Australia for 66,000 years. The photo left is of the Australian female nicknamed "Luzia", her almost complete skeleton, which bears the scientific name of Lapa Vermelha IV Hominid 1, was unearthed in 1974-75 in the Lagoa Santa region, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.
It is about 12,000 years old. 20,000 to 7,000 B.C. – Polynesians were coming in, (polynesians can best be described as a cross between Southeast Asian and Australoid). It seems highly unlikely that early Australoids could have crossed the vast expanse of the Pacific in boats that long ago. Perhaps a better theory is that they used a route around the Antarctic, just as the Amerindian used a route around the Arctic. 12,000 - 7,000 B.C. (the Clovis time-frame) – Amerindians were coming in across the Bering Straits, with the Eskimo being the last of these migrants. (a note here: the Eskimos are Mongol, all Amerindians may not be Mongol).
Some North and perhaps even some South American Amerindians perhaps were originally Caucasians of the western Eurasian plains, who may have skirted north of the Mongols to enter the Americas.
The discovery of Scythian mummies in the permafrost of the Mongolian highlands makes this a very real possibility. Additionally, there seems to be an unmistakable Caucasian influence in the facial features of some of the artefacts. Making the source of their pigmentation, (cross-breeding in Asia or the Americans), problematic indeed.
The great variation in pigmentation and other physical characteristics of Amerindians in the great expanse of the Western Hemisphere makes it clear that many gene pools were at work. A curiosity concerning population patterns in the Americas:
By the time of the Europeans, the estimated population of the Americas was 100 million. This was broken down to 40 million people in the densely populated area of Mexico and Central America, 45 million in South America, but, only 10 million in the vast expanse of Canada and the United States. This was the source of much head-scratching, until a clever theory was put forth - one that does have some evidence.
The theory is, that at the time of the Clovis migration, much of North America was still covered in Glacial Ice, so instead of walking south, the Amerindian "Island-Hopped" south in boats, using coastal islands (which are known to have been ice-free) and ice-free patches of coastline, until they found habitable land, it seems to be a perfectly reasonable theory. Then again, could it be much simpler: keeping in mind that the Amerindian, like the other people of the Eurasian plains, was hunter-gathering nomads.
Could it be that there was originally a much larger population in the United States, and perhaps these people saw the cities and agricultural abundance of the south as candidates for looting and plundering?
And perhaps after having gone south, and plundered and looted, they also saw the advantages of that lifestyle and stayed. This scenario would seem to explain the Aztec presence, the very high population density in Mesoamerica, and the lack of large scale building in North America, Mexico excluded.
Examiner: British researchers probe mystery of lost Native American artifact. It is the Rosetta Stone of North America. The English translation of this hand-painted vellum containing a lost Native American writing system, requires eight printed pages.
With the encouragement of His Royal Highness, Charles, Prince of Wales, a search has begun on both sides of the Atlantic to find the original artifact, or at least a copy of the writing system. It has been misplaced for over 230 years. The year is 1733. Growing increasingly fearful of a combined Spanish, French and Indian attack on its vulnerable white population, the Province of South Carolina agreed to renounce claims on territory southwest of the Savannah River so that a new colony of yeoman farmers could be established on its frontier. Above: "A female Savage of Tierra del Fuego" engraving from a drawing by Johnann Ihle from Ebenezer Sibly's "Universal System of Natural History" 1794 A.D.
Roughly sixty percent of South Carolina’s population was either African or Native American slaves. These suppressed peoples would be highly inclined to assist the French and Spanish. In 1715, without the direct assistance of European powers, the Yamasee Indians had almost succeeded in wiping the southern part Carolina off the face of the earth. Back then there was no North or South Carolina.
A new alliance of tribes in the Carolina Mountains switched sides and attacked the Yamasee just at the moment when Charleston faced annihilation. This alliance was now called the Cherokees. The new colony, called Georgia in honor of King George I, would have no slaves. Its first town, Savannah, had been designed in advance as a military bastion. Its unique plan maximized the defensive effectiveness of artillery. All males in the colony agreed to be members of the militia in return for being given free land.
Unlike Maryland, Virginia, South and North Carolina, there would be no plantation aristocracy. At least, that was the plan. The key to this colony’s success would be good relations with the Muskogean peoples of the interior. Prior to the Yamasee War, they had been divided up into provinces of various sizes. The strongest province was itself an alliance known to the British as the Ochese Creek Indians.
At about the same time in 1718 that the Mountain Alliance was given the name Cherokees, the Muskogeans formed their own regional confederacy from provinces speaking several languages and dialects.
The colony’s Board of Trustees planned to recruit the thousands of Englishmen in debtor’s prisons, plus German Protestants, being persecuted in Catholic regions, to settle the countryside.
The Muskogean Confederacy was not a tribe at this time, but would eventually evolve into the Creek Indians.
Nevertheless, in 1733, this alliance contained the largest and most culturally advanced indigenous population in North America.
It claimed all the former lands of its members, between the Smoky Mountains in North Carolina southward to St. Augustine, FL. Expansion of the Cherokee Alliance into western North Carolina had forced many Muskogean provinces to relocate to Alabama and Georgia.
Its members would not be called “the Creek Indians” until the 1740s.