Lejja, Nsukka, Eastern Nigeria,

Ugwuele, Gabon, Malaysia





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Chinese, Peking Man, Magosian, Shaheinab Neolithic, Sangoan

Peking Man

In 1923-27 during excavations at Zhoukoudian China, near Beijing (formerly "Peking") bones were found from a 750,000 year old Humanoid dubbed "Peking Man".


Many people, including some Chinese, claimed that the Chinese people descended from Peking Man; who in fact was actually a Homo-Erectus. In response, in 2001, many of the worlds leading genetic researchers produced a study which clearly showed that the Chinese, like everyone else, descended from Africans.


(To test the hypotheses of modern human origin in East Asia, we sampled 12,127 male individuals from 163 populations and typed for three Y chromosome biallelic markers (Yap, M89, and M130). All the individuals carried a mutation at one of the three sites.


These three mutations (Yap+, M89, and M130T) coalesce to another mutation (M168T), which originated in Africa about 35,000 years ago. Therefore, the data do not support even the minimal in situ-hominid contribution in the origin of anatomically modern humans in East Asia.


Archaeologists of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, in their excavations carried out in the early 1970s discovered huge stacks of various kinds of stone tools – hand axes, knives, picks, cleavers - in the Igbo town of Ugwu-Ele (‘Hill of Ele’), Isuikwuato, Abia State, Nigeria. The archaeologists concluded that the tools spanned the period from Early, Middle to Late Stone Age (at least 500,000 – 80,000 B.C.  The British member of UNN Archaeology department at the time, Professor D. David concluded that, “the site was the largest stone axe factory in the world!





We are not aware of any other site in the world with such an enormous amount of stone axes and other tools.”  Anozie argued that since “the technology and typology of Acheulian culture is very similar everywhere in Africa and other parts of the world, (and) the hand-axes from Ugwuele very much resemble those from (Stone Age sites in) France, England, India, East Africa, North Africa, etc., in terms of form and techniques of manufacture.


It is mainly because of this that the Acheulian culture is regarded as a worldwide culture and a heritage of all humanity”.  The ‘Out of East Africa’ phenomenon, as the world has been made to believe, was based on the discovery of a three million year old ancestor of Homo-erectus (Lucy) in East Africa.


Magosian: Culture of the Second Intermediate Period (50,000 to 10,000 BCE) characterized by microliths, named after Ngosi, a water hole in the eastern area of Uganda. Nachikufan: Later Stone Age culture first recognized at the Nachikufu caves Zambia, associated with rock paintings.Oldowan: Olduvai Gorge Tanganyika prior to Chelles-Acheul (1,800,000 to 500,000 BCE). Symbolized by pebble tools, named after Olduvai Gorge Tanganyika.



Sangoan: Early Middle stone culture of the forested steppes of Central Africa named after Sango Bay of Lake Victoria about 150,000 to 40,000 BCE. Shaheinab Neolithic: The Earliest known culture with evidence of domesticated animals in Eastern Africa, characterized by stone gouges, bone-axe heads and pottery. Named after a sight 30 miles north of Khatoum (Sudan), approximately 100,000 BCE.


The forest-savanna interface typical of central Gabon is well preserved in the park, and ecological and archaeological evidence shows that the area was inhabited almost continuously from late Palaeolithic times 350-400,000 years ago to the present.


These migrations were undertaken through Gabon following ridge lines (Oslisly 1995), although elsewhere river navigation was used (see, e.g., Eggert 1993).


Archaeologists in Zambia have uncovered evidence that early humans used paint for aesthetic purposes far earlier than previously thought. The team found pigments and paint grinding equipment believed to be between 350,000 and 400,000 years old. The oldest pigments previously found were 120,000 years old and the oldest known paintings are just 35,000 years old. Over 300 fragments of pigment have now been found in a cave at Twin Rivers, near Lusaka, Zambia.


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Olduvai Footprint

Modern humans first arose about 200,000 years ago in Africa. When and how our lineage then dispersed has long proven controversial, but geneticists have suggested this exodus started between 40,000 and 70,000 years ago.


The currently accepted theory is that the exodus from Africa traced Arabia's shores, rather than passing through its now-arid interior.


However, stone artifacts at least 100,000 years old from the Arabian Desert, revealed in January 2011, hinted that modern humans might have begun our march across the globe earlier than once suspected. Now, more-than-100 newly discovered sites in the Sultanate of Oman apparently confirm that modern humans left Africa through Arabia long before genetic evidence suggests.


Some group stayed within the region, others moved east. In Malaysia traces of ash-dating back to the great Mount Toba eruption in Sumatra 74,000 years ago, we found on stone tools left by modern humans in Kota Tampra, a wooded valley near Penang. Anthropologist Zuraima Majidr director of the centre for archaeological research Malaysia discovered this evidence. Middle Eastern Countries 50,000 BCE
En route to Australia from Africa our ancestors left behind colonies that made their own journey further to the east.


Qafzeh, cave, Ugwu-Ele, Zambia



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Below: the images you are looking at are the reconstructed face of one of the oldest-known modern humans, a woman who lived perhaps 100,000 years ago.


Qafzeh Front View


She may be a member of the population that gave rise to all anatomically modern Homo sapiens, who migrated and survived out of Africa.


Partial Front View


Facial reconstruction expert Richard Neave of Manchester, England, created this three-dimensional representation from the cast of the skull uncovered in the Qafzeh cave in Israel in 1969.


Qafzeh  Side View


The cast was provided by the Natural History Museum of London, Rebuilding the features of a human face from skeletal remains is "done in anatomical way," says Neave.


"It's a bit like dissection in reverse ... I used a soft wax and just re-created over the surface of the skull all the facial muscles. The eyes were inserted and all the basic underlying muscular structure was rebuilt over the face."


The result is the reconstructed face of a woman who lived relatively close — geographically and chronologically to the African "real Eve." Her visage may give us a glimpse of what the genetic relative of all humans may have looked like.


"There are always areas of uncertainty," says Neave. "We don't know the shape of the ears, the tip of nose, the line of vermilion of the lips We do know the basic proportions of the face, whether the lips protruded forward or not, whether the eyes sloped upwards or downwards."


Neave reiterated that this woman, known scientifically as "Qafzeh 9," was truly modern, and was anatomically and evolutionarily no different from humans alive today.