stages of the Chelles-Acheul culture, characterized by hand axes named after St. Acheui, France. Acheulio-Levalloisian: A Culture recognized in the Somalia area. It includesAcheulian-type hand axes and flake tools about 500,000 BCE by the Levalloisian. Atlanthroipus mauritanicus: possibly the same species as Pithecanthropus erectus (500,000 to 250,000 BCE), generally located in the Algerian region of North Africa and Casablanca areas. Australopithecinae: Relatives of the family Hominidae, or sub-family, to the earliest known upright-walking and tool-making hominids. Generally located around the regions of South and East Africa (1,800,000 to 500,000 BCE).
Australopethecus: Genus of the sub-family Australopitliecinae. There are two species, africanus and robustus (2,000,000 to 500,000 BCE).
Boskopid: Ancient South African (so-called "Bushmen") skulls. First type of the recognized skull from Boskop, South Africa. Bushman is a European word. It is used to single out specific group of Africans. Chellean Man: A skull from bed 2, Olduvai Gorge Tanganyika, accompanied by Chellean type hand axes 500,000 BCE. Hyrax Hill: Earliest known variations of the stone bowl culture, named after a site in the Kenya rift valley 500,000 BCE.
Magosian: Culture of the Second Intermediate Period (50,000 to 10,000 BCE) characterized by microliths, named after Ngosi, a water hole in the eastern area of Uganda. Nachikufan: Later Stone Age culture first recognized at the Nachikufu caves Zambia, associated with rock paintings.Oldowan: Olduvai Gorge Tanganyika prior to Chelles-Acheul (1,800,000 to 500,000 BCE). Symbolized by pebble tools, named after Olduvai Gorge Tanganyika. Sangoan:
Early Middle stone culture of the forested steppes of Central Africa named after Sango Bay of Lake Victoria about 150,000 to 40,000 BCE. Shaheinab Neolithic: The Earliest known culture with evidence of domesticated animals in Eastern Africa, characterized by stone gouges, bone-axe heads and pottery. Named after a sight 30 miles north of Khatoum (Sudan), approximately 100,000 BCE.
You are looking at the reconstructed face of one of the oldest-known modern humans, a woman who lived perhaps 100,000 years ago.
She may be a member of the population that gave rise to all anatomically modern Homo sapiens, who migrated and survived out of Africa. Facial reconstruction expert Richard Neave of Manchester, England, created this three-dimensional representation from the cast of the skull uncovered in the Qafzeh cave in Israel in 1969. The cast was provided by the Natural History Museum of London, Rebuilding the features of a human face from skeletal remains is "done in anatomical way," says Neave.
"It's a bit like dissection in reverse ... I used a soft wax and just re-created over the surface of the skull all the facial muscles. The eyes were inserted and all the basic underlying muscular structure was rebuilt over the face."
The result is the reconstructed face of a woman who lived relatively close — geographically and chronologically to the African "real Eve." Her visage may give us a glimpse of what the genetic relative of all humans may have looked like.
"There are always areas of uncertainty," says Neave. "We don't know the shape of the ears, the tip of nose, the line of vermilion of the lips We do know the basic proportions of the face, whether the lips protruded forward or not, whether the eyes sloped upwards or downwards."
Neave reiterated that this woman, known scientifically as "Qafzeh 9," was truly modern, and was anatomically and evolutionarily no different from humans alive today.