The Eurocentric timeline is based on radio-chronological, archaeological, and paleo-ecological data after 5000 B.C.E., anything before that is mostly speculations.
It was on this data that the out of East Africa into the rest of the world hypothesis was based, in order to ultimately tally it with European history itself, incorporating human evolution and migration.
However, sometimes there are exceptions, in that recently discovered and uncovered, man-made objects, artwork and artefacts, under sediments, rocks and others, could be dated according to geological events pertaining to where they are found.
These discoveries and uncoverings, is turning the Eurocentric theory of human evolution and migration, on its head. The Greek historian, Herodotus confirmed that the source-river of the Nile as the Niger. NASA Satellite imaging published online shows that the Niger was once largest river in East and West Africa, feeding many lesser bodies of water, including the Nile, thus confirming Herodotus that the Niger fed the Nile in antiquity.
The path drawn and the width of the river is purely hypothetical. In the next 10 pages, we will try to render this theory obsolete and honour our dear departed ancestors for their infinite wisdom. Zambia is famous for it ancient schematic rock art.
Northern Province has the highest concentration of rock art in Zambia and paintings are mainly found in and around rocky overhangs and caves. The most famous site is the Mwela, about 7 miles east of the town of Kasama which is a UNESCO World Heritage site. The oldest in Zambia have been dated to between 350,000 and 400,000 years old! Many more are yet to be discovered.
Archaeologists in Zambia have uncovered evidence that early humans used paint for aesthetic purposes far earlier than previously thought. The team found pigments and paint grinding equipment believed to be between 350,000 and 400,000 years old. The oldest pigments previously found were 120,000 years old and the oldest known paintings are just 35,000 years old. Over 300 fragments of pigment have now been found in a cave at Twin Rivers, near Lusaka, Zambia.
These materials were apparently gathered in from the surrounding area.
It is likely that the stone age inhabitants used the colours, which range from yellow to purple, to paint their bodies during Religious rituals, ceremonies and other social events. "It also implies the use of language, so it's an important discovery, full of implications for the development of new behaviours."
The remnants date from before the "Official Accepted" date of the appearance of anatomically modern humans, Homo Sapiens. One of the team that made the discovery, Dr Lawrence Barham from the University of Bristol, UK, said: We're dealing here with people who were perhaps using symbols far earlier than we expected. (BBC) , Bottom left, Rock Painting from Zambia, and bottom right, Petroglyphs,
from Lope-Okanda, Garbon, Central Africa.
Stone Age man's first forays into art were taking place at the same time as the development of more efficient hunting equipment, including tools that combined both wooden handles and stone implements.
There are numerous Stone Age sites in the middle valley of the Ogooue, including the oldest known stone tools in central Africa, discovered in the upper terrace of the Ogooue at Elarmekora (Oslisly and Peyrot 1992a) and estimated to date to around 400,000 B.C.E. , in correlation with the mid-Bruhnes climatic change (Jansen et al. 1986).
Unfortunately, as is the case elsewhere in central Africa, most sites are in river terraces or other stone lines, and therefore their stratigraphy is typically highly disturbed.
Because of the strongly acidic soils (with pH generally 4-5) there are no bones or other organic remains to enable radio-chronological dating. Only for sites dating from the past 5,000 years are detailed radio-chronological, archaeological, and paleoecological data available.
the web for