Technology & Architecture

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iranian Plateau, Early Bronze Age, Ziggurats, Agriculture,

Elam King
Elam King
Elam King

Little is known of the cultures of Iran during the early Bronze ages. However, it is clear that during these early periods, the rugged broken landscape of the Iranian Plateau, forced man into a variety of relatively isolated cultures.

 

Right: African design of the Susa bowl - 4000 BCE. These cultures did not participate in the developments that led to the full urbanised civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia to their west, or in the Indus Valley to their south. Elam city was contemporary with its neighbouring cultures in every way. Here they had the same high level of civilization as their neighbours, with the same agriculture, the same architecture (the Elamites built Ziggurats too), and the same technology in mathematics and the sciences. Top left: Elam King holding a goat, 1400 B.C.E.

 

The centre of Elam was (what is now) "Khuzestan". Though geographically, Elam included more than Khuzestan, it was a combination of the lowlands, and the immediate highland areas to the north and east. The major cities of Elam were, Awan, Anshan, Simash, and Susa. Little is known of the cultures of Iran during the early Bronze ages.

 

 

 

However, it is clear that during these early periods, the rugged broken landscape of the Iranian Plateau, forced man into a variety of relatively isolated cultures. These cultures did not participate in the developments that led to the full urbanised civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia to their west, or in the

Elamite God Bes
Bakum Pottery

Indus Valley to their south. Elam city was contemporary with its neighbouring cultures in every way. Right: Ancient Fars - Pottery from Bakum 4500 BCE.

 

Here they had the same high level of civilization as their neighbours, with the same agriculture, the same architecture (the Elamites built Ziggurats too), and the same technology in mathematics and the sciences. The centre of Elam was (what is now) "Khuzestan". Left: Elamite God Bes

 

Though geographically, Elam included more than Khuzestan, it was a combination of the lowlands, and the immediate highland areas to the north and east. The major cities of Elam were, Awan, Anshan, Simash, and Susa. Bottom left: Alabaster Head of the African God Bess found in Persepolis. Susa later became Elam's capital. In the earliest times, the king was required to live in Susa, which functioned as the federal capital. With him ruled his brother closest in age (the viceroy), who usually had his seat of government in the native city of the currently ruling king.

 

This viceroy was heir presumptive to the king.The third official the regent or prince of Susa, (the district), shared power with the king and the viceroy. He was usually the kings son, or if no son was available, his nephew. On the death of the king, the viceroy became king. The prince of Susa remained in office, and the brother of the old viceroy nearest to him in age became the new viceroy.

 

Elamite sky God

Only if all brothers were dead, was the prince of Susa promoted to viceroy, thus enabling the king to name his own son (or nephew), as the new prince of Susa. Such a complicated system of governmental checks, balances, and power inheritance, often broke down, despite bilateral descent and levirate marriage, ( the compulsory marriage of a widow to her deceased husband's brother). What is remarkable is how often the system did work;  it was only in the Middle and Neo-Elamite periods that sons more often succeeded fathers to power.

 

The Elamite people were closely tied, culturally and otherwise, to Mesopotamia. Later, perhaps because of domination by the Akkadian dynasty (2334-2154 BC), Elamites adopted the Sumerian-Akkadian system of writing (the cuneiform script). Elamite rule was broken when King Susuda of Kish defeated the Elamites. There soon appeared a new ruling house in Elam, the Simash dynasty, (Simash may have been in the mountains of southern Luristan). The most notable event of this period, was the virtual conquest of Elam by King Shulgi of the 3rd dynasty of Ur (2094–2047 BC).

 

Eventually the Elamites rose in rebellion, and overthrew the 3rd Ur dynasty, an event long remembered in Mesopotamian dirges and omen texts. At about 1900 B.C, power in Elam passed to a new dynasty, that of Eparti. The third king of this line "Shirukdukh" was active in various military coalitions against the rising power of Babylon, but Hammurabi (1792–1750 B.C.) was not to be denied, and Elam was crushed in 1764 B.C.


Ritual Platform

The Old Babylon kingdom however, fell into rapid decline following the death of Hammurabi, and it was not long before the Elamites were able to gain revenge.


Elamite king "Kutir-Nahhunte I" attacked Samsuiluna (1749–1712 B.C.) Hammurabi's son, and dealt so serious a defeat to the Babylonians that the event was remembered more than 1,000 years later in an inscription of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal. It may be assumed that with this stroke Elam once again gained independence. The end of the Eparti dynasty, which may have come in the late 16th century B.C, is buried in silence.


Two nude figures squat on the bronze slab, one knee bent to the ground. One of the figures holds out open hands to his companion who prepares to pour the contents of a lipped vase onto them. The scene takes place in a stylized urban landscape, with reduced-scale architectural features: a tiered tower or ziggurat flanked with pillars, a temple on a high terrace. There is also a large jar resembling the ceramic pithoi decorated with rope motifs that were used to store water and liquid foodstuffs. An arched stele stands by some rectangular basins.

 

Mathematics & Sciences

 

Nok-benin need your support please subscribe to my video channel on youtube.

 

It will allow us to make this website dynamic, lessen our workload and cost tremendously, and a better navigating experience.

 

Thank you

 

Search this Website

 

 

 

 

 

Translate

 

Rows of dots in relief may represent solid foodstuffs on altars, and jagged sticks represent trees.

 

The men's bodies are delicately modeled, their faces clean-shaven, and their shaved heads speckled with the shadow of the hair.

 

Their facial expression is serene, their eyes open, the hint of a smile on their lips.

 

An inscription tells us the name of the piece's royal dedicator and its meaning in part: "I Shilhak-Inshushinak, son of Shutruk-Nahhunte, beloved servant of Inshushinak, king of Anshan and Susa [...], I made a bronze sunrise."

 

The context of this work found on the Susa acropolis is unclear.

 

It may have been reused in the masonry of a tomb, or associated with a funerary sanctuary.

 

It appears to be related to Elamite practices that were brought to light by excavations at Chogha Zambil.


This site houses the remains of a secondary capital founded by the Untash-Napirisha dynasty in the 14th century BC, some ten kilometers east of Susa (toward the rising sun).


The sacred complex, including a ziggurat and temples enclosed within a precinct, featured elements on the esplanade, rows of pillars and altars.

 

A "funerary palace," with vaulted tombs, has also been found there.

 

 

Scrub The Web Search Engine

 

SubmitFree: Submit to 25+ Search Engines for free !!!!

 

Free-Banners

 

 

 

Search the web for