The image on directly above was created using Adobe Photoshop only via simple rings and solid fill colours, no gradient.
The image in the middle was also created using 3d Studio Max and Adobe Photoshop. The box shape, was modelled and rendered in Blender 3d, while the roof and building texture map was created via Adobe Photoshop.
I would like to take this opportunity to thank these websites on behalf of Nok-Benin for their various tutorials pertaining to Multi Columns, Multi Level Drop-down Menu, Background Images and Conflicting Rules on Cascading Style Sheet (CSS). These tutorials are very clear, simple and well structured. In fact the re-designing of this website via CSS is based on the tutorials of the websites listed below.
The image on the right; was created using Blender 3d and Adobe Photoshop.
The 3d text orientation effect and the centre sphere, were modelled and rendered in Blender 3d, while the text and sphere texture map was created via Adobe Photoshop.