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Just as exciting as the fossil finds, were the artifact finds at the Balzi Rossi, or Red Rocks (also known as the Grimaldi Caves), were Louis Alexandre Jullien, carried out the excavations that led, at the end of the last century, to the discovery of fifteen figurines, called the Balzi Rossi Venuses.
Many other sites across Europe and Asia have also produced Grimaldi Venuses: many of them Steatopygia Females, and many of normal proportion females. Notable of these are the Venus of Willendorf: found near Krems, Austria.
The Venus of Brassempouy, found in France in 1892. It should be noted; that though all Grimaldi figures are not of Steatopygia Females, that style of figure, is the signature of Grimaldi.
As demonstrated by the Venuses, Bust reproductions of Skulls, and other artifacts: The Grimaldi people, like modern day Africans, show great variation in facial features, hair styles, clothing and adornment. They show a particular liking for bracelets, necklaces, and pendants. When Grimaldi Man entered Europe, he encountered the Humanoid, Neanderthal man: who had migrated to Europe thousands of years earlier, and had become physically adapted to the cold. Grimaldi was followed into Europe: perhaps 15,000 years later, by the Humanoid Cro-Magnon man.
Nothing is known of their relationships, or even if they intermingled. But it is generally believed that at some point, there had to have been some crossbreeding. Thought Grimaldi Man is known to have established settlements as far south as Catal Huyuk in Anatolia. There is uncertainty as to whether it was Grimaldi descendants, or a different group, such as those Africans who settled North Africa and the Middle East, that can be credited with the creation of the original Southern European civilizations, especially those in Italy, Greece, and Anatolia (modern Turkey).
Neolithic diffusion of agriculture
The development of the Neolithic lifestyle in the Fertile Crescent was about to bring a wave of Near Eastern immigrants that would change dramatically the genetic landscape of Europe.
Goats and sheep were the first animals domesticated, in the Taurus and Zagros mountains some 11,000 years ago. The domestication of wild cereals could have taken place as early as 23,000 years before present in the southern Levant, although the actual cultivation of wheat and barley didn't start until 11,500 ybp.
The first pottery produced in the Fertile Crescent appeared circa 6500 BCE. It is from this period that early agriculturalists began expanding towards western Anatolia and Greece. These Neolithic farmers potentially belonged to haplogroups H2, H5, H7, H13 and H20 (as well as J2b1, K1a, N1, T2 and X2), all of which have been found in ancient Neolithic samples from Europe and are also found throughout the Middle East today. One group migrated by sea to Italy and to the western Mediterranean, creating the Cardium Pottery culture. The H subclades most closely associated with this culture is H13, which would have been a lineage of goat herders living in mountainous environment.
Nowadays H13 is one of the most common H subclades in the Caucasus (13% in Georgia, 15% in Daghestan) and in Sardinia (9%), two regions with high levels of Y-haplogroup G2a, J1 and J2a. H13 is also relatively common (2 to 8%) all the way from the Levant to Iberia, but rare in northern Europe.
Another Neolithic expansion started off from the Balkans, commencing in Thessaly circa 6500 BCE and spreading at first (6300-5800 BCE) to modern Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria and Serbia. It is likely that this Thessalian Neolithic was conducted not only by Near Eastern immigrants (Y-haplogroups G2a, E-M123, J1 and T), but also by assimilated local populations (Y-haplogroups E-V13, J2b and maybe I2a1 too).
From 5500 to 4500 BCE, the Linear Pottery culture (LBK) spread along the Danube from northern Serbia to Germany and all the way to the Netherlands and Poland. These farmers might also have taken brides among the neighouring tribes of hunter-gatherers, as suggested by the small amount of Mesolithic European admixture in a 7,500-year old individual from the LBK culture.
Over 100 mtDNA samples from this period have been tested and included haplogroups H2, H5, H7 and H20, among the likely newcomers from the Middle East, but also H1, H3, H10, H11a, H16 and H89, among the probable lineages coming from assimilated Mesolithic European populations.
H7 was probably part of the Neolithic migration from the Carpathians to Ukraine that gave rise to the Dnieper-Donets culture, along perhaps with mt-haplogroups K1c, K2b, T1a1a, T2a1b1 and T2b, and with Y-haplogroups G2a3b1 and J2b2.
All these lineages would subsequently be absorbed by the Proto-Indo-European speakers (Y-haplogroups R1a and R1b) of the Yamna culture during Bronze Age. Neolithic & Chalcolithic Europe: H1 and H3 lineages would have been some of the most prevalent mt-haplogroups among the Megalithic cultures of Western Europe, which spanned the whole Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, from the 5th millennium BCE until the arrival of the Proto-Celts (Y-DNA R1b) from 2200 BCE to 1800 BCE (or up to 1200 BCE in parts of Iberia). Megalithic people would have belonged essentially to Y-haplogroups I2, G2a and E1b1b, with the possible addition of J2 lineages during the Chalcolithic. From the Bronze Age, R1b male lineages replaced a large percentage of Megalithic Y-haplogroups, but female Megalithic lineages survived almost unchanged in frequency.
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Celtic culture was born from the fusion of Indo-European paternal lineages (R1b) with native Central and Western European maternal lineages (including H1, H3, H10, J1c, K1a, T2, U5 and X2).
The presence of H1 was confirmed in remains from the Late Neolithic Funnel Beaker culture in Scandinavia, which can also be classified as a Megalithic culture.
Indo-European invasions during the Bronze Age
The Bronze Age brought on a new wave of immigrants from the East that would have a tremendous impact on the gene pool and cultural identity of Europe:
the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) people. Originating in the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, to the north of the Black Sea and the Caucasus, PIE speakers were the first people to use bronze technologies for military purposes, starting from c. 3700 BCE.
They were also the first to domesticate horses, which they supposedly rode to manage their cattle in the extensive steppes.
Already living a (semi-)nomadic existence as cattle herders since the Neolithic (see R1b history), horse riding and bronze working provided PIE steppe people with the means to invade and conquer practically any part of the world they wished.
They started with Europe, invading the Carpathians and the Balkans repeatedly between 4200 and 2800 BCE, before eventually leaving the steppes almost completely and moving further west across Europe, until the Atlantic coast.
The northern branch of PIE speakers, associated with the development of Balto-Slavic and Indo-Iranian languages (see R1a), invaded Poland, Germany and Scandinavia to the west from 2900 to 2400 BCE, and Siberia and Central Asia to the east, from 2500 to 1800 BCE.