Aboriginals, Uluru Rock, Binary, Power, Numbers, Group, Pair
The Aboriginals believe that dreamtime is the period when ancestral beings shaped the land, creating all species and human beings.
Human beings are believed to be part of nature, closely associated with al other living thing. Images of lightning man cover sacred cliffs and caves in tribal areas. Aboriginals left plenty of evidence about their presence in many sacred places, such as Uluru rock (Ayers Rock). The local Aranda People reveres the Uluru rock area, as a sacred place.
Australian Aborigines have a number of unique genetic lines that leads straight back to the first modern human to survive outside of Africa. The first group arrived 70,000 years ago and Top left cave paintings showing creatures from a vanished world dated 61,000 BCE. Top right, Uluru Rock.
Many cultures have very strong relationships to the number two. Australian Aboriginal nearly extinct Gumbaynggir language is not very useful for counting large numbers. For example using the table in the image on the left to count up to 50 meant saying Bulari over 25 times.
Two is the perfect number, and everything must come in pairs in order to stay intact. Odd numbers bring bad luck because they can't be divided in two equal halves. If twins are born, they are considered sacred, more perfect than their "non-doubled" tribemates.
Elegant, isn't it? Of course, this kind of counting is not very useful when it comes to large numbers (three or bigger). When dealing with large numbers, some new concepts are desperately needed. If a mind that only knows about "one" and "two" wants to handle large amounts of things, the most natural way in my opinion is to form pairs, then pairs of pairs (groups of 4), pairs of pairs of pairs (groups of 8), and so on. If the mind gives names to these groups, it suddenly has the possibility of composing numbers from powers of two - a binary number system.
The number system of the Medlpa language spoken in Papua-New-Guinea is based on the addition of powers of two. What if you want to use fingers for counting in systems like this? Simple: just forget one finger from each hand and one toe from each foot, and you have a very beautiful octal or hexadecimal base.
Ngwenya, Mountain, Ochre, Mine, Stone Age, Swaziland
During the long dry period, the Maluekian, which lasted from 70,000 to 40,000 B.C.E., many of the central African forests gave way to savannas (Roche 1979).
During this period, brutal but infrequent rainstorms caused severe erosion, which deposited large quantities of stones, pebbles, and gravel in riverbeds.
Peoples of the middle Stone Age lived close to these rivers, using the stones to fashion rough tools, including the choppers, picks, and scrapers of the Sangoan industry, which are common in riverbanks and around ancient lakes in central Africa. These industries tend to occur in flood-plain deposits, which are by nature very disturbed and remain poorly understood. About 65,000 years ago, Aboriginal South Africans established the first mine in Swaziland, mining for red Ochre, and also applying it to their objects and costumes in order to make them waterproofed. The image above is the overhead view of Ngwenya Ochre Mine, Swaziland.
They established the first Ochre mine, called Ngwenya Ochre Mine, in Swaziland, South-East Africa. Mr Adrian Boshier field research officer for the Museum of Man and Science in Johannesburg South African discovered this evidence. Which was also supported by Carbon Dating and article publication in the New York Times on 8th of February 1970.
Rock art played an important role in ritual practice among southern African hunter-gatherer communities. Painting and engraving traditions developed over the last 20,000 years into a highly sophisticated way of expressing complex beliefs about the supernatural world. Rock art was the preserve of medicine people, or shamans, and had two functions: as a means to enter the natural world and to record the shamans experiences in that world. Travel to the spirit world. The shaman prepared to enter the realm of the spirits by achieving a state of trance or altered consciousness. This could be done by dancing to rhythmic clapping or chanting or hyperventilation, dehydration, sensory deprivation or intense concentration.
There is no evidence that shamans used drugs or other artificial means to induce trance, although this is possible. The shaman carried out important tasks while in the natural realm, such as healing the sick, making rain and communicating with powerful spirit forces.
The Image above is the famous 'dancing kudu' rock engraving at Twyfelfontein, which is surrounded by geometric patterns chipped into the surrounding rock, Geometric riddles.
The shaman’s vision became disturbed at the start of trance, and he would 'see' patterned flashes of light. Produced in the brain, these flashes are also known as entoptic images or images ‘in the eye’. They are depicted in the seemingly abstract geometric images in the rock art. Meanders, dots, lines, grids, spirals and whorls resemble entoptic or inner-eye images recorded in neurophysiological experiments. Although entoptic images are similar for all people in the world, the associations formed in a state of trance are contextual. The shaman fuses his hallucinatory visions with images of animals and other potent spiritual symbols.
Tanzanian, Trance, Art, South African, Shaman, 35,000 Years, Old, Skull
It is likely that making the engravings helped to prepare the shaman for a state of trance.
The repetitive chipping at the rock and the monotonous sound could have contributed to mental concentration.
Entering into the stare of trance, the shaman would experience a variety of physical sensations:
he might feel as if his legs are growing unnaturally long, or that he is rising from the ground.
He would shiver and struggle to control his movements, sometimes collapsing on the ground with a gushing nose-bleed.
This second stage of trance was known as the ‘little death’, the moment of entering the spirit realm.
Transformation. Following the death-like stage, the shaman would take on the form of a supernatural creature.
This might be a familiar animal, such as a giraffe, elephant or lion, one that has special powers such as to heal or make rain.
This ability to enter the supernatural world and return alive was a rare gift not possessed by everyone.
Shamans were extraordinary men and women, who left an exceptional artistic legacy.
About 35,000 years ago, some our ancestors who are well established in South and Central Africa began to express their artistic prowess.
The evidence is from the elegance of prehistoric African art unearthed in southern Africa, presently located in the Pretoria Museum, approximately 30,000 years old.
Cut by flint stone tools by prehistoric indigenous Africans.
In addition, was the reconstruction of a stone age African skull-cast, such African lived during the same period as the artist who made the original cast about 25,000 BCE.