Black, History, Igbo, Utu, Sidney Louis Davis, Catherine Acholonu






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Nigerian Map


Nigerian Map Nok

The Dufuna Boat, was dug up from a village along the Komodugu Gana river, in Fune local government area of Yobe State, Nigeria.


Lejja iron smelting technology was dated 2,000 B.C by Carbon-12 laboratory analysis conducted at the Oxford University Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory , London in partnership with the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, through the professional instrumentality of archaeologists Professor Edwin Eme Okafor, Dean of Archaelogy, UNN and Professor Pamela Eze-Uzoamaka, Head of Department of Archaeology, UNN. In Nsukka communities, iron ore is called Nne nkpume, slag are called Nsi Igwe and furnaces are called Utu. Knives forged in the area are called Idu. There are 500 to a thousand huge lumps of slag in the Dunu Oka village square, Lejja site alone.




Nigerian Map Igbo
Nigerian Map Dufuna

Evidence abounds in these communities that a vast industry of iron smelting thrived in Old Nsukka involving entire populations of several communities. In these communities which include Orba, Opi, Umundu, Owerri-Elu, Eha, Agu, Isiakpu, Eguru, and archaeologists have found evidence of prehistoric mining of iron ore as well as local furnaces used for smelting.


Sitchen reveals that the Sumerian term Dun/Duni (which survives to this day in Dunu Oka village in Lejja) is equivalent to the Assyrian word Ka’ini (the root of the word Canaan), and that Sumerian and Assyrian texts maintained that “Ashur is the Lord of Duni”.


Nigerian Rivers map

Duni is of course a reference to Dunu Oka, and Ashur is the title of Egyptian god Osiris and the origin of his name. Osiris is the Sun Disc. He is represented in the ancient Dunu Oka Shrine with the Sun disc symbol called Oshuru. Oshuru is thus the original word/concept from which Osiris derives his name. Ralph Ellis in Eden in Egypt, notes that Ashura means ‘Sacred Groove” or Shrine.


This is in keeping with the fact that Oshuru is the most sacred part of the Dunu Oka Shrine. The black lines in the map above denotes rivers, which meant that it would have been very easy for those ancient Nigerians to transport their global products, of iron and terracotta artwork, all over Nigeria and well beyond.


It is indeed a mound of iron slag covering the Hidden Hole that leads into what the native priests call a “bottomless pit” – which no doubt is the Underground Duat of Osiris and Atum.

Igbo Mound
Ancient Iron Furnace

The name of the first of the two magical Trees - Utu Udeleigwe means ‘Utu – the Vulture of the Sky’. This cannot be a coincidence, rather it implies that the sacred tree with that name is actually a totem representative of the god Utu himself.


Also the name of the god Adad occurs in Lejja in the female form of Adada, who is the main deity female of Lejja. Her shrine is not far removed from the Dunu Oka Shrine.


Therefore the “House of Shamash” located in the “Place of Palms” referred to by Biblical prophet Amos, is Lejja in Nsukka, Enugu state. The reference to this place as a place of palms is self-explanatory. Igbo land, Eastern Nigeria is the traditional home of the palm tree.


Two magical Trees, Utu Udeleigwe, Oya Ogwuu, Eastern Nigeria




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Nok Terracotta Statue


It is an interesting revelation that this place is referred to in Jeremiah as the “Houses of the Gods of Egypt”. Edwin Eme Okafor, “Economy and Politics: Factors of Technological Change in Nsukka Bloomery


Iron-Smelting, Nigerian Heritage Journal of NCMM, Vol. 4, 1995, p. 89.
Professor Pamela Eze-Uzoamaka, Head, Department of Archaeology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN), in a paper

titled “Iron Production and Change in Igbo land Nigeria”,


In Ikenga Journal…, states “C-12 dates recovered from

(from Oxford University, London, ”indicate that smelting started as early as 2000 BC and continued till a few decades ago.” P. 17, p. 15.


Adiele Afigbo, Igbo History and Society, edited by Toyin Falola, (2005), p. 417.


Eden in Egypt, 2004, p. 79 – 80.