America, Olmec, Civilization, Veracruz Tabasco, Africa, Ancient
The first civilization in the Americas was founded by a people we call Olmecs. The Olmec came to Mexico from Africa over 5000 years ago.
The Olmec were a cosmopolitan people. As a result we find many other nationalities living in the Olmec cities in addition to Africans, from many parts of the Old World. Alexander von Wuthenau in has recorded the iconographic evidence for the European and Chinese people that traded with the Olmec people.
The ancient civilization of the Olmec thrived, in what are now the Mexican state of Veracruz and Tabasco. The Olmec also built huge pyramids and created their own form of hieroglyphic writing. They carved four huge heads, each weighing 60 ton and over 7 feet tall from basalt. Scientist believed the heads represent rain spirit.
But by using most of the historical and archaeological records to date, it was common practice amongst past civilizations to shape their best monument in the form of the images of their leaders or their Gods. Scientist uncovered no evidence to back up the "rain spirit" theory. Therefore it was inconceivable that this advance civilization carved these huge heads in the image of another race rather than that of their own.
The Olmec civilization was the missing link between Africa and south America, proofing that their were interaction between the two world. Interaction that predate the birth of Christ by over 2,000 years. The assertion that the Olmec came from Africa is supported with scientific evidence via genetics, writings, relegion, language and archaeology, as well as arguement for and against.
PCMS, Table 2, Wiercinski, Armenoid, Laponoid, Black, Tlatilco
The races recorded in this table are based on the Polish Comparative-Morphological School (PCMS). And from now on we will refer to this image as Table 2. The PCMS terms are misleading. As mentioned earlier the Dongolan , Armenoid, and Equatorial groups refer to African people with varying facial features which are all Blacks.
This is obvious when we look at the iconographic and sculptural evidence used by Wiercinski (1972b) to support his conclusions.
Wiercinski (1972b) compared the physiognomy of the Olmecs to corresponding examples of Olmec sculptures and bas-reliefs on the stelas. For example, Wiercinski (1972b, p.160) makes it clear that the colossal Olmec heads represent the Dongolan type. It is interesting to note that the empirical frequencies of the Dongolan type at Tlatilco is .231, this was more than twice as high as Wiercinski's theoretical figure of .101, for the presence of Dongolans at Tlatilco.
The other possible African type found at Tlatilco and Cerro were the Laponoid group. The Laponoid group represents the Austroloid-Melanesian type of (Negro) Pacific Islander, not the Mongolian type. If we add together the following percent of the Olmecs represented in Table 2, by the Laponoid (21.2%), Equatorial (13.5), and Armenoid (18.3) groups we can assume that at least 53 percent of the Olmecs at Tlatilco were Africans or Blacks.
Using the same figures recorded in Table 2 for Cerro, we observe that 40.8 percent of these Olmecs would have been classified as Black if they lived in contemporary America. Rossum (1996) has criticized the work of Wiercinski because he found that not only blacks, but whites were also present in ancient America.
To support this view he,claims that Wiercinski was wrong because he found that Negro/Black people lived in Shang China that he compared ancient skeletons to modern Old World people.
First, it was not surprising that Wiercinski found affinities between African and ancient Chinese populations, because everyone knows that many Negro/African/Oceanic skeletons (referred to as Loponoid by the Polish school) have been found in ancient China see: Kwang-chih Chang The Archaeology of ancient China (1976,1977, p.76,1987, pp.64,68).
These Blacks were spread throughout Kwangsi, Kwantung, Szechwan, Yunnan and Pearl River delta. Skeletons from Liu-Chiang and Dawenkou, early Neolithic sites found in China, were also Negro. Moreover, the Dawenkou skeletons show skull deformation and extraction of teeth customs, analogous to customs among Blacks in Polynesia and Africa.
Secondly, Rossum argues that Wiercinski was wrong about Blacks in ancient America because a comparison of modern native American skeletal material and the ancient Olmec skeletal material indicate no admixture. The study of Vargas and Rossum are flawed. They are flawed because the skeletal reference collection they used in their comparison of Olmec skeletal remains and modern Amerindian populations because the Mexicans have been mixing with African and European populations since the 1500's. This has left many components of these Old World people within and among Mexican Amerindians.
The iconography of the classic Olmec and Mayan civilization show no correspondence in facial features. But many contemporary Maya and other Amerind groups show African characteristics and DNA. Underhill, et al (1996) found that the Mayan people have an African Y chromosome. This would explain the "puffy" faces of contemporary Amerinds, which are incongruent with the Mayan type associated with classic Mayan sculptures and stelas.
Wiercinski on the other hand, compared his SRC to an unmixed European and African sample. This comparison avoided the use of skeletal material that is clearly mixed with Africans and Europeans, in much the same way as the Afro-American people he discussed in his essay who have acquired "white" features since mixing with whites due to the slave trade. A. von Wuthenau (1980), and Wiercinski (1972b) highlight the numerous art pieces depicting the African or Black variety which made up the Olmec people.