Americas, South, Pedra Furada, Brazil, Paintings, Rock, Caves
Findings of Human remains in Mesoamerica and South America: The oldest of these are of the Australoid racial type, the next oldest are of South-Asian Polynesian racial type, these are much older than anything in North America.
This indicates that the migration pattern of the first settlers of the Americas was Not from North America going south – but rather, from South America To North America. Then of course there are the Olmec – the people who brought civilization to the Americas with their Technology, Art and culture. When all the new information is compiled it is clear that there was not One peopling of the Americas, but rather, there was at least Five.
For more than 100 years, researchers have claimed that there were very early human sites in the tropical forests of eastern South America.
By the end of 1998, ten excavated sites had produced remains with beginning dates of 11,000 years ago or slightly earlier. Serra da Capivara National Park is a national park in the Northeastern region of Brazil.
It has many prehistoric paintings. The park was created to protect the prehistoric artifacts and paintings found there. It became a World Heritage Site in 1991. Its head archaeologist is Niède Guidon. Its best known archaeological site is Pedra Furada, this large sandstone rock-shelter located in the thorn forest of northeastern Brazil has been at the center of a controversy for many years.
Pedra Furada includes a collection of rock shelters used for thousands of years by human populations. Site investigators found stone tools and charcoal hearths at the earliest levels. The first excavations yielded artifacts with Carbon-14 dates of 48,000 to 32,000 years B.C.E. Repeated analysis has confirmed this dating, carrying the range of dates up to 60,000 B.C.E. Archaeological levels that are well excavated yield dates between 32,160 ± 1,000 years B.C.E., and 17,000 ± 400 B.C.E. The collection of stone age artifacts includes darts and atlatls but no arrows or bows.
Unlike Clovis sites, those in Brazil include painted caves and rock shelters. Food remains include nuts, legumes, fish, shellfish, and small game animals. Among the artifacts are triangular, sometimes stemmed points but no fluted points, (points referrers to spear and arrow tips). The newly dated sites include Caverna da Pedra Pintada, Santana de Riacho, and Boquete in Brazil.