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Americas, South, Pedra Furada, Brazil, Paintings, Rock, Caves

Pedra Furada

Findings of Human remains in Mesoamerica and South America: The oldest of these are of the Australoid racial type, the next oldest are of South-Asian Polynesian racial type, these are much older than anything in North America.

 

This indicates that the migration pattern of the first settlers of the Americas was Not from North America going south – but rather, from South America To North America. Then of course there are the Olmec – the people who brought civilization to the Americas with their Technology, Art and culture. When all the new information is compiled it is clear that there was not One peopling of the Americas, but rather, there was at least Five.

 

 

 

Pedra Furada Rock Art

For more than 100 years, researchers have claimed that there were very early human sites in the tropical forests of eastern South America.

 

By the end of 1998, ten excavated sites had produced remains with beginning dates of 11,000 years ago or slightly earlier. Serra da Capivara National Park is a national park in the Northeastern region of Brazil.

 

It has many prehistoric paintings. The park was created to protect the prehistoric artifacts and paintings found there. It became a World Heritage Site in 1991. Its head archaeologist is Niède Guidon. Its best known archaeological site is Pedra Furada, this large sandstone rock-shelter located in the thorn forest of northeastern Brazil has been at the center of a controversy for many years.

 

Pedra Furada includes a collection of rock shelters used for thousands of years by human populations. Site investigators found stone tools and charcoal hearths at the earliest levels. The first excavations yielded artifacts with Carbon-14 dates of 48,000 to 32,000 years B.C.E. Repeated analysis has confirmed this dating, carrying the range of dates up to 60,000 B.C.E. Archaeological levels that are well excavated yield dates between 32,160 ± 1,000 years B.C.E., and 17,000 ± 400 B.C.E. The collection of stone age artifacts includes darts and atlatls but no arrows or bows.

 

Unlike Clovis sites, those in Brazil include painted caves and rock shelters. Food remains include nuts, legumes, fish, shellfish, and small game animals. Among the artifacts are triangular, sometimes stemmed points but no fluted points, (points referrers to spear and arrow tips). The newly dated sites include Caverna da Pedra Pintada, Santana de Riacho, and Boquete in Brazil.

Americas, Brasilia, Civilization, AFP, Niede Guidon, Artifacts

Pedra Furada Rock Art

News-Story: Brasilia (AFP), 09-10-2013. A new exhibit in Brazil showcases artifacts dating as far back as 30,000 years ago -- throwing a wrench in the commonly held theory humans first crossed to the Americas from Asia a mere 12,000 years ago.

 

The 100 items on display in Brasilia, including cave paintings and ceramic art, depict animals, ceremonies, hunting expeditions -- and even scenes from the sex lives of this ancient group of early Americans. The artifacts come from the Serra da Capivara national park in Brazil's northeastern Piaui state, on the border of the Amazon and Atlantic Forests, which attracted the hunter-gatherer civilization that left behind this hoard of local art.

Pedra Furada Rock Art

Since the 1970s, Franco-Brazilian archaeologist Niede Guidon has headed a mission to carry out large-scale excavation of Piaui's interior.

 

"It's difficult to think there exists a site anywhere with a higher concentration of cave art," the 80-year-old Guidon told AFP.

 

Other traces of the civilization include charcoal remains of structured fires, explained Guidon, who hails from Sao Paulo. "To date, these are the oldest traces" of human existence in the Americas, she emphasized. The widely held theory has suggested human beings only reached the Americas some 12,000 years ago from Asia, crossing the Bering Strait to reach Alaska.

 

Some archeologists contend flaked pebbles at the Brazilian sites are not evidence of a crude, human-made fire hearth made some 40 millennia ago, but are rather geofacts -- a natural stone formation, not a man-made one.

 

Dr Gonzalez, Africa, American, Chile, Native American

 

Olmec

 

But Guidon said she believes the Serra dwellers may have come originally from Africa, and she said the cave art provides compelling evidence of early human activity.

 

Pedra Furada Rock Art

 

The paintings are estimated to date back some 29,000 years, she said, noting:

 

"When it began in Europe and Africa, it did here too." Other sites, including Valsequillo in Mexico and Monte Verde in Chile, also indicate the presence of communities tens of thousands of years ago.

 

These sites have led archeologists to speculate that peoples traveled various routes to reach the Americas and at different stages, archeologist Gisele Daltrini Felice told AFP.

 

Legal challenge
Scientific analysis of early skull finds in the US has often been halted by native American custom which assumes that any ancient remains involve their ancestors and must be handed over.

 

However, this evidence that another race may have pre-dated native Americans could strengthen legal challenges from researchers to force access to such remains.

 

Dr Gonzalez said: "My research could have implications for the ancient burial rights of North American Indians."

 

Dr Gonzalez has now been awarded a grant from the Mexican government and the UK's Natural Environment Research Council to continue her work for three years.