The early Egyptians settled along the fertile Nile valley as early as about 6000 BCE, and they began to record the patterns of lunar phases and the seasons, both for agricultural and religious reasons.
The Pharaoh’s surveyors used measurements based on body parts (a palm was the width of the hand, a cubit the measurement from elbow to fingertips) to measure land and buildings very early in Egyptian history, and a decimal numeric system was developed based on our ten fingers. The oldest mathematical text from ancient Egypt discovered so far, though, is the Moscow Papyrus, which dates from the Egyptian Middle Kingdom around 2000 - 1800 BCE.
It is thought that the Egyptians introduced the earliest fully-developed base 10 numeration system at least as early as 2700 BCE (and probably much early).
Written numbers used a stroke for units, a heel-bone symbol for tens, a coil of rope for hundreds and a lotus plant for thousands, as well as other hieroglyphic symbols for higher powers of ten up to a million. However, there was no concept of place value, so larger numbers were rather unwieldy (although a million required just one character, a million minus one required fifty-four characters).
The Triangle Of The Pyramid Field, Man's Earliest Numerological And Mathematical Challenge 8000 To 341 BCE. The triangular field on the left contain mathematical calculations that solved the area of the Tri-Leg or House of Amenta (Pyramid or House of Heaven). It was developed in the pre-dynastic era and solved about 341 BCE. The indigenous African not only solved the problem of the Pyramid or House of Heaven, they also squared the circle.
The "Eber Payrus" 1550 BCE the earliest known "Fertility Control Recipe"
This is one of a compendium of medical inscription left by the indigenous Africans of (Ta-Merry, Ta-Nehisi, Itopi and Meroe). It is an inscription for medicated "Tampon" designed to prevent pregnancy.
It requires the following: A mixture of the tips of the shrub of Accacia and honey made into a tampon and inserted into the vagina as a suppository. The chemical reaction is that Accacia fermentation breaks down into lactic acid, one of the active spermicidal agents used in the contraceptive jellies today.
The Ebers Papyrus is a huge roll of more than 20 meters long and 30 cm wide. It is chiefly an internal medicine reference, as well as diseases of the eye, skin, extremities, gynecology and some surgical diseases. Anatomical and physiological terminology is also included. For treatment of those diseases, 877 recipes and 400 drugs were described.
The most famous and elaborate papyri are the Edwin Smith Papyrus (1600 BC) and the Ebers papyrus, which refers to King Den (1st dynasty, 3000 BC), suggesting a much earlier origin.
The book of was found in writings under the two feet of Anubis in Letopolis and was brought to the majesty of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Den. The Edwin Smith Papyrus is 5 meters long, and is chiefly concerned with surgery. It described 48 surgical cases of wounds of the head, neck, shoulders, breast and chest. Unfortunately, the scribe who copied it did not proceed further from the thorax, and it ended abruptly in the middle of a sentence.
The papyrus listed the manifestations, followed by prescriptions to every individual case. It included a vast experience in fractures that can only be acquired at a site where accidents were extremely numerous, as during the building of the pyramids. Bottom left: Canopy jars, vessels for (internal organs): The ape-headed 'Hapy' protected the lungs.
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Canopy jars, vessels for (internal organs):
The human headed 'Imsety' looked after the liver.
The Falcon Qebehsenuef looked after the Intestines.
The Jackal-Headed Duamutef Guarded the Stomach.