Rehotep, Djehuty, Nebiriau I, Inyotef V, Inyotef VI, Inyotef VII, Sobekemsaf II, Kamose












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Salites, Beon, Apkhnas, Khaian, Neby, Apophis, Khamudi

15th and 16th Dynasty Hyksos Invaders

1648 - 1539 B.C.E. and 1539-1645 B.C.E

Dynasty XV 1648 - 1539 B.C.E

  • Salites
  • Beon

  • Apkhnas

  • Khaian
  • Apophis
  • Khamudi
  • Dynasty XVI 1539-1645 (Hyksos Vassals)

Sewadjenre Nebiryraw (also Nebiryraw I, Nebiryerawet) was a pharaoh of Egypt of the 16th Theban dynasty based in Upper Egypt during the Second intermediate period. Nebiryraw I reigned for 26 years according to the Turin Canon and was succeeded by Nebiriau II who may have been his son.


All the published seals of Nebiriau I were made of clay or frit rather than steatite which implies there were no mining expeditions dispatched to the Eastern Desert region of Egypt during his reign. Two seals of this king were found at Lisht deep in Hyksos territory which might imply diplomatic contact between the Theban dynasty and the Hyksos during Nebiriau I's reign, although this is uncertain.


Nebiriau I

A small stela showing the king in front of Maat is part of the Egyptian collection located in Bonn. His prenomen "Sewadjenre" means "The One whom Re causes to flourish." The Juridical Stela dates to Year 1 of his reign when the father of Sobeknakht II — Sobeknakht I — purchased the office of Governorate of Elkab from Kebsi. Kebsi was the son of Governor (later Vizier) Aymeru and grandson of Aya who was appointed Vizier in Year 1 of King Merhotepre Ini of the 13th Dynasty.


This suggests that the owner of the richly decorated tomb T10 at El-Kab was Sobeknakht II. Accordingly, if Sobeknakht I first purchased his office in Year 1 of Nebiriau I's reign — who is given a reign of 26 years by the Turin Canon — his son would have been Governor of Elkab during the final years of Nebiryraw I, Nebiryraw II and probably Seuserenre Bebiankh (who is given 12 years by the Turin Canon).

Inyotef V

Inyotef V: Nubkheperre Intef is one of the best attested kings of the 17th dynasty who restored numerous damaged temples in Upper Egypt as well as constructing a new temple at Gebel Antef.


The best preserved building from his reign is the remains of a small chapel at Koptos. Four walls that have been reconstructed show the king in front of Min and show him crowned by Horus and by another god. The reliefs are executed in raised and sunken relief. At Koptos, the Coptos Decree was found on a stela which referred to the actions of Nubkheperre Intef against Teti, son of Minhotep.


At Abydos, several stone fragments were found, including columns which attest to some kind of restoration work. On a stela found at Abydos, a mention is made of a House of Intef. This most likely refers to a building belonging to Nubkheperre Intef. Therefore, while Nubkheperre Intef's highest—and only known—year date is his Year 3 on the Koptos stela, this must be considered an underestimate since he must have ruled much longer to accomplish his ambitious building program and also complete his royal tomb.



Indeed, Nubkheperre Intef is alone "mentioned on over twenty contemporary monuments" from his reign which demonstrates his position as one of the most powerful rulers of the Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt.

Sobekemsaf II (or more properly Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf) was an Egyptian king of the Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt who reigned during the Second Intermediate Period, when Egypt was ruled by multiple kings (he was once thought to belong to the late Thirteenth Dynasty).


His throne name, Sekhemre Shedtawy, means "Powerful is Re; Rescuer of the Two Lands." It is now believed by Egyptologists that Sobekemsaf II was the father of both Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef and Nubkheperre Intef based on an inscription carved on a doorjamb discovered in the ruins

of a 17th Dynasty temple at Gebel Antef in the early 1990s which was built under Nubkheperre Intef.


The doorjamb mentions a king Sobekem[saf] as the father of Nubkheperre Intef/Antef VII--(Antef begotten of Sobekem...) He was in all likelihood the Prince Sobekemsaf who is attested as the son and designated successor of king Sobekemsaf I on Cairo Statue CG 386.


According to the Abbott Papyrus and the Leopold-Amherst Papyrus, which is dated to Year 16 of Ramesses IX, Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf was buried along with his chief Queen Nubkhaes in his royal tomb. Seqenenre Tao, (also Seqenera Djehuty-aa or Sekenenra Taa), called The Brave, ruled over the last of the local kingdoms of the Theban region of Egypt in the Seventeenth Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. He probably was the son and successor to Senakhtenre Ahmose and Queen Tetisheri.


The dates of his reign are uncertain, but he may have risen to power in the decade ending in 1560 BC or in 1558 BC (based on the probable accession date of Ahmose I, the first ruler of the eighteenth dynasty, see Egyptian chronology). With his queen, Ahhotep I, Seqenenre Tao fathered two pharaohs, Kamose, his immediate successor who was the last pharaoh of the seventeenth dynasty and Ahmose I who, following a regency by his mother, was the first pharaoh of the eighteenth. Seqenenre Tao is credited with starting the opening moves in the war of liberation against the Hyksos, which was ended by his son Ahmose.




Kamose was the last king of the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty. He was possibly the son of Seqenenre Tao and Ahhotep I and the full brother of Ahmose I, founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty. His reign fell at the very end of the Second Intermediate Period. Kamose is usually ascribed a reign of three years (his highest attested regnal year), although some scholars now favor giving him a longer reign of approximately five years. His reign is important for the decisive military initiatives he took against the Hyksos, who had come to rule much of Ancient Egypt.


His father had begun the initiatives and, quite possibly, lost his life in battle with them. It is thought that his mother, as regent, continued the campaigns after the death of Kamose and that his full brother made the final conquest of them and united all of Egypt. In Kamose's third year, he embarked on his military campaign against the Hyksos by sailing north out of Thebes on the Nile. He first reached Nefrusy, which was just north of Cusae and was manned by an Egyptian garrison loyal to the Hyksos. A detachment of Medjay troops attacked the garrison and overran it.


Mentuhotep VII, Nebiriau II, Seuserenre, Sobekemsaf I, Taa I (Senakhtenre), Taa II (Senakhtenre)



The Carnavon Tablet recounted this much of the campaign, but breaks off there.


Nonetheless, Kamose's military strategy probably can be inferred.


As Kamose moved north, he could easily take small villages and wipe out small Hyksos garrisons, but if a

city resisted, he could cut it off from the rest of the Hyksos kingdom simply by taking over the city directly to the north.


This kind of tactic probably allowed him to travel very quickly up the Nile. A second stele also found in Thebes, continues Kamose's narrative again with an attack on Avaris.




According to the second stele, after moving north of Nefrusy, Kamose's soldiers captured a courier bearing a

message from the Hyksos king Awoserre Apopi at Avaris to his ally, the ruler of Kush, requesting the latter's urgent support against Kamose.


Kamose promptly ordered a detachment of his troops to occupy and destroy the

Bahariya Oasis in the western desert, which controlled the north-south desert route.


Kamose, called "the Strong"

in this text, ordered this action to protect his rearguard.


Kamose then sailed southward, back up the Nile to Thebes, for a joyous victory celebration after his military success against the Hyksos in pushing the boundaries of his kingdom northward from Cusae past Hermopolis through to Sako, which now formed the new frontier between seventeenth dynasty of Thebes and the fifteenth dynasty Hyksos state.


17th Dynasty 1645 - 1550 B.C.E.

Dynasty XVII