Aesop Aesopus Lochmam 620 - 560 BCE
Fables existed before the printed word as folktales that were recounted orally. Hundreds of fables have been attributed to the Greek slave Aesop, who lived between 620 and 560 B.C.
Two hundred of his tales were gathered in about 320 B.C. to make up the earliest known collection.
During the medieval period, Latin translations of Aesop's fables were used as textbooks in schools. "The Crow and the Pitcher," "The Lion and the Mouse," "The Hare and the Tortoise" and "The Town Mouse and the Country Mouse" are some of Aesop's fables. Other ancient fable collections include The Panchatantra and The Jatakas, both from India.
The Panchatantra was written about 200 B.C. Structured in verse; these stories are much more elaborate than Aesop's are. The Jatakas, a huge collection of stories about the reincarnation of Buddha, dates at least as far back as the fifth century A.D. Top left first image: Black Youth Greece 300 B.C.E, Top middle image Aesop and Top third image: Hannibal Barca.
The discussion of Moorish militarism begins distinctly with the ancient martial conflicts between Rome and Carthage. Moorish soldiers are mentioned as early as the expedition to Sicily in 406 B.C., in a revolt by a certain Hanno Barca 350 B.C. and the Roman invasion of Africa in 256 B.C. They are similarly mentioned in Livy's account of the second Punic War (218-201 B.C.). In their bitter, prolonged and increasingly desperate struggle for national independence and control of the western Mediterranean, the Carthaginians utilized Moorish troops as integral elements in all of their battle campaigns. With the Numidians, the Moors fought on the side of the Carthaginians against the Romans.
These redoubtable Moorish warriors greatly aided the Carthaginians, and were particularly beneficial to Hannibal Barca the illustrious African general. Indeed, Hannibal, "who had over 6,000 [Moors] at his disposal, suffered his only defeat when they were no longer available." Carthage was founded (traditionally by Dido) from Tyre in the 9th cent. B.C. The city-state built up trade and in the 6th and 5th cent. B.C. began to acquire dominance in the W Mediterranean. Merchants and explorers established a wide net of trade that brought great wealth to Carthage. The state was tightly controlled by an aristocracy of nobles and wealthy merchants. Although a council and a popular assembly existed, these soon lost power to oligarchical institutions, and actual power was in the hands of the judges and two elected magistrates (suffetes).
There was also a small but powerful senate. Nevertheless, with the destruction of Carthage in the third Punic War (150 - 46 B.C., Rome became the supreme power in North Africa. In spite of Roman dominance, however, regional and national independence movements continued unceasingly.
499--Romans overthrow Latins at Battle of Lake Regillius.
498--Hippocrates becomes tyrant dictator at Gela, on the south coast of Sicily.
494--Plebs return to Rome after first "Secession of the Plebs". They have been at the "Mount of Curses" (Mons Sacer) and are coaxed into returning to Rome by being acknowledged as essential to Rome.
492--Troops under Hippocrates defeat Syracuse at the Helorus river.
491--Gelon becomes the new tyrant of Syracuse. He lasts for more than 12 years until 478.
480--The Carthaginian, Hamilcar, suffers terrible defeat in war against Gelon.
478--Hieron I takes over in Syracuse upon the death of Gelon.
405--Peace treaty between Carthage and Syracuse is signed after Carthaginian troops are ravaged by plague and cannot conquer Syracuse. Reign of Dionysius I begins.
403--Dionysius becomes absolute ruler of Syracuse.
397--Motya, an important Phoenician/Carthaginian trading post on a small island just off the northwestern coast of Sicily is destroyed.
383--The third of the Carthaginian wars on Sicily breaks out, but this time the battle includes the land in the south of Italy which Dionysius had brought under his control.
264--Rome begins first war against Carthage at Messina. This event is what is called the First Punic War.
It is also the beginning of a struggle which will last until Rome finally buries Carthage in the North African soil, so that Punic Carthage can never again populate the earth.
This year is the beginning, but the struggle will last 118 bitter years .
260--Rome achieves first naval victory over Carthaginians at Mylae on west coast of Sicily.
250--Carthaginians again destroy Selinunte.
226--Rome draws a boundary line in Spain between Carthaginian territory and Roman territory.
The agreement is called the Ebro River treaty, made between Hasdrubal, for Carthage, & Rome.
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