The Primate of the Gods Ptah, conceived in his heart, everything that exists and by His utterance created them all. He is first to emerge from the primeval waters of Nun in the form of a Primeval Hill. Closely following the Hill, the God Atom also emerges from the waters and sits upon Ptah (The Hill).
There remain in the waters four pairs of male and female gods (The Ogdoad, or unity of Eight-Gods), bearing the following names:
(1) Nun and Naunet, i.e., the Primeval waters and the counter heaven.
(2) Huh and Hauhet, i.e., the boundless and its opposite.
(3) Kuk and Kauket, i.e., darkness and its opposite.
(4) Amun, i.e., (Amon) and Amaunet, i.e., the hidden and its opposite.
(Egyptian Religion by Frankfort, p. 20; 23. Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man by Frankfort, p. 21).
From verses scattered throughout hymns and myths, one can compile a picture of the universe's (Anki) creation according to the Sumerians. The primeval seas (Apsu) existed before anything else and within that, the heaven (an) and the earth (Ki) were formed. The boundary between heaven and earth was a solid (perhaps tin) vault, and the earth was a flat disk. Within the vault lay the gas-like 'lil', or atmosphere, the brighter portions therein formed the stars, planets, sun, and moon. (Kramer, The Sumerians 1963: pp. 112-113) Each of the four major Sumerian deities is associated with one of these regions.
When on high the Heavens had not been named, firm ground below had not been called by name, nothing but 'Primordial Apsu' the Begetter, (Fresh) Water and 'Mummu Tiamat', she who bore them all, (Salt Water) their waters commingling as a single body. No reed hut had been matted; no marshland had appeared, uncalled by name, their destinies undetermined.
Then it was that the Gods were formed within them. Lahmu ('mud') and Lahamu ('Mrs Mud') were brought forth, by name they were called before they had grown in age and stature. Anshar ('Upper Firmament') and Kishar ('Lower Firmament') were formed, surpassing the others. They prolonged the days, added on the years.
Note there is a remarkable similarity between Sumerian writing and Yoruba language. For example Lahmu ('mud'), in Yoruba is called (Amo) or clay. Anshar ('Upper Firmament'), in Yoruba is called (Apa) or (Ika) Finger, and Kishar ('Lower Firmament'), called Ese.
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Excerpts from the Upanishads are shown below. These avatars such as Vishnu took on the form of a fish when a universal flood overwhelmed the earth. The fish legend first appeared in Brahman’s (the impersonal world soul) and the Noah's ark theme.
The tortoise (Kurma) Vishnu became a great tortoise, and dived to the bottom of the cosmic ocean to reclaim the many divine treasures that were lost in the flood including the Ambrosia (Amrta, the food sometimes the drink of the gods in Greek mythology) with which Gods preserve their youth.
A demon, Hiranyaksa, cast the earth once more into the depth of the cosmic ocean. Vishnu took the form of an enormous boar killed the demon, and raised the earth on his tusk. Another demon, Hirauyakasipu, had obtained a boon (blessing) from Brahma ensuring that he could not he killed by any man or beast.
Safeguarded he persecuted all including his son. Prahlada (his son) called on Vishnu for help.
Vishnu burst from a pillar of the demons' palace in the form of a half man and half lion and slew Hirauyakasipu.
A demon named Bali gained control over the world and commenced a course of asceticism (self denying) by which his supernatural power so increased that he menaced even the gods.
Vishnu appeared before him as a dwarf asking for a blessing of two strides, when granted the god became a giant and the two strides covered the earth, heavens and middle air.
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