The beginnings of class In Nekhem (Hierakonpolis), we see the beginnings of this class distinction, here we find large dynastic type buildings, with new rituals and social structure.
In the cult center of Horus, there is a palace and ritual precinct, which was made of timber and matting, but can only be theoretically reconstructed from the positions of the postholes - some of which were big enough for entire tree trunks!
The features of this complex can be compared with the buildings of Pharaoh Djoser's pyramid complex, because it also has a large oval courtyard, surrounded by various buildings. This is clearly the forerunner to the royal ritual precincts of the early Dynastic Period. A note on terminology: Upper Egypt - referrers to southern Egypt, Lower Egypt referrers to northern Egypt.
The reason for this apparent switch, is that their reference was the Nile river, which runs South to North. The word Pharaoh means "Great House" a reference to the kings residence. The actual name of the country that we call Egypt is "Kemet" which in the Kemetian language means the "Black land", no doubt referring to the dark soil of the Nile river valley.
The word "Egypt" is the Greek name for the country and is a reference to a mythical Greek hero "Aegyptus". The Kemetians called themselves simply, "the people." This brings up some rather annoying problems. The fact is that much of the ancient history available to us, was written by Europeans. Consequently they converted person and place names to words in their languages. Unfortunately at this point, it would only cause more confusion, not to continue using the European words.
However, there is one thing that is particularly nonsensical: English is called "English" because England is the originating country, French is called "French" because France is the originating country, etc. etc. So why is it that Egyptian is called "Semitic" a word coined by a German professor of languages, A.L. von Schlozer, he first coined the word "semitic" in 1780 to describe Middle Eastern languages.
There can be no doubt that Egypt is the major, of the originating civilizations for all of man's subsequent civilizations. Yet Egypt's language is referred to by some trumped-up name. Anyway, there is no such thing as a "Semitic" language, there is no such thing as a "Semitic" people, there is no such thing as a "Semitic" anything, it's not a real word! What they really mean is Kemetian. But, we're forced to use semitic here anyway, for convenience.
Also Note, Countries with the names: Libya, Syria and Ethiopia, are creations of our time! The place names "Libya", Syria, Ethiopia and others, as used in these texts, are for convenience. They didn't exist at that time. Ethiopia: in ancient times was called "Punt", Syria was called "Arum/Aram" of the famous Aramaeans. The original name for Libya is "Lebu" which is the Egyptian term for the Berbers, who are the original inhabitants of that area.
After the Arab invasion, these Berbers joined forces with the Arabs and went on to invade Spain. There they were known as Moors. (Care should be taken, to understand that we are NOT talking about the current Turkish/mixed-race people who call themselves Berbers, like the current people who call themselves Arab, these are the result of subsequent cross-breeding). The term "Libya" is Greek, and was used to denote all of Africa except Egypt. Lastly, Cush/Kush is Nubia, (modern Sudan).
Northern African cave paintings, dating back 12 000 years, have been found at Tadrart Acacus in Libya.
A Neolithic culture, marked by animal domestication and subsistence agriculture, developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean region (the Maghreb) of northern Africa between 6000 B.C and 2000 B.C. This type of life, richly depicted in the Tassili n'Ajjer cave paintings of south-eastern Algeria, predominated in the Maghreb until the classical period.
The proto-Berbers lacked a written language and so have tended to be overlooked by written historical accounts. The modern Berbers are assumed to be descended from the tribes of Ancient Libya which are mentioned in records of Ancient Egypt. During the New Kingdom, the Egyptians later fought against the Meshwesh and Libu tribes on their western borders.
Bonda of India is unique in that its cultural and philosophical traditions have been maintained without a break from antiquity to the present. Some claim that this connective culture is rooted as far back as the seventh millennium BCE. Living testament to this tradition are the sparsely populated pockets of India's oldest black inhabitants called 'Adivasi' which means 'former inhabitants'. With only eight hundred of these people left, theirs is truly considered a culture on the brink of extinction because of their scarcity in numbers. The Bonda are discounted by the Indian government.
Between 10000 and 8000 BCE the Africans of the Nile Valley also introduced the first calendar. Woven linen has been known in Egypt since about 7000 BCE. The oldest depiction of a loom was found at Badari on a pottery dish dating from the middle of the 5th millenium BCE while the first known pictures of weavers were drawn during the Middle Kingdom. The loom was horizontal with a wooden support for the warp beam and a cloth beam that could be rotated, to which the ends of the warp threads were tied and onto which the woven cloth was wound. In 6020 BCE Africans in the Congo use markings on bones to develop a numeration system.
The Egyptian-German archeological mission has realized an important discovery which proves that the ancient Egyptian had lived in the area currently known as the "Great Sea of Sands" in the southwest of Egypt, in the prehistoric period, or five thousand years ago; it had been a rainy area. Dr. Gaballah Ali Gaballah, Chairman of the Supreme Council of Archeology said that the mission made three trips to the Western Desert "Galf Qabir" southwest Egypt near the junction of the borders of Sudan, Libya and Chad. For his part, Dr. Mohammed Al-Sagheer, head of the Egyptian Monuments Department said that the mission made an archeological survey around the "Mahariq" Plateau and the "Garah" Cave area, where it discovered several tools which had been used by the ancient Egyptian living, then, in those remote areas.
The tools included granite pots, fireplaces and human and animal bones.
The mission delineated and defined the Cave with all its drawings and geometrical and decorative designs.
In addition, the mission delineated the archeological site in the "Gararah" Valley and drafted a report to be submitted to Dr. Farouk Hosny, Minister of Culture in order to appropriate the budget necessary for the completion of the excavations in the area to find more data on this discovery.
FISHING 6000 BCE
Fish were caught with woven dragnets and weir-baskets made from willow branches, fishing nets for smaller fish, harpoons, hook and line, the hooks had a length of between eight millimetres and eighteen centimetres.
Agriculture in 4500 BCE Village culture at Merimde-Beni-Salame in the Nile Delta: a mixture of hunting, fishing and agriculture, with a central corn store. Primitive oval mud huts, dogs, sheep, goats and donkeys have been domesticated.
Neolithic Painting In 4300 BCE: Renaissance of the Neolithic Naturalistic Painting. This was pottery painted with white and later with red colours about 4221 BCE. In 3700 BCE Silver, gold and copper was smelted in blowpipe furnaces. Ceramics 3300 BCE Negade I period in Upper Egypt:
Re-polished black-rimmed ceramics with geometric or descriptive ornamentation (hunting motifs). 3150 BCE King Narmer (Menes) unifies Upper and Lower Kemet and establishes Memphis as capital.